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给学校的信 - 强迫

没有强迫的学习
Learn without compulsion

There is no freedom when there is disorder. Disorder begets authority, and authority in any form is evil—if one can use that word evil. Where there is freedom, disorder or the lack of order cannot exist, yet the disorderly mind is always seeking freedom. Such a mind will define freedom in terms of its own confusion. A disordered mind seeking freedom or asserting freedom has no meaning whatsoever. A dis¬ordered mind invites the discipline imposed by authority in different forms—politically, religiously, socially, and so on—political tyranny and religious dogma.

有混乱,便不会有自由。混乱催生权威,而任何形式的权威都是邪恶的——如果我们可以使用邪恶这个词。哪里有自由,哪里就不会有混乱和秩序的缺失,但混乱的心灵却一直在寻找自由。这样的心灵按照自己的困惑来定义自由。一个混乱的心灵,去寻找自由或者去宣称自由,都是没有任何意义的。混乱的心灵只会招来权威所强加的各种形式的纪律——政治的,宗教的,社会的等等——政治的独裁和宗教的教条。

What are we being educated for? Is it to make the mind conform to the patterns set by previous generations, or is it to understand and go beyond the whole structure of our disordered life both outwardly and inwardly? Is it merely to acquire knowledge or is it to free ourselves from disorder and so bring about a new society?
Obviously if one gives serious thought to 1 his, education is to bring about in the mind a total freedom so that it is capable not only of ordering its own life but also, in this very process, of bringing about a different social structure. This is action which [is not that of] the mind that is committed to a particular course of action or a particular belief, ideal or action influenced by the environment.

我们受教育是为了什么?是为了让心灵符合前辈所设定的模式,还是去了解和超越我们整个内在和外在的混乱的生活结构?是仅仅为了获取知识还是要让我们从混乱中脱身并带来一个新的社会?
如果我们认真地思考这个问题,很明显,教育是要带给心灵彻底的自由,这样它不只能够让自己的生活秩序化,而且正是在这个过程里,也将带来一个不同的社会结构。这种行动不是来自一个固守于某些特殊的行为,或某种特殊信仰,理想的心灵,也不是受环境影响而产生的行动。

We are concerned with education and how to bring about order without compulsion. Where there is compulsion in any form, subtle or obvious, there is not only conformity, imitation, but also fear is bred. Our problem in these schools is how to educate without any form of authority and compulsion. Knowing how authority comes into being and the effects of compulsion, how is a disordered mind to free itself from its confusion naturally, without effort? The students come from disordered families and society. They themselves are confused, uncertain. They react from their conditioning. Their revolt, which they call freedom, is the response of their confusion. So that is the state of the students. They want security, affection; this cannot be if there is compulsion. In their anxious revolt they reject not only the word discipline with its authority but also any form of coercion. The more sensitive they are, the stronger are their reactions, and their revolt is unfortunately expressed in many superficial ways.

我们关心的是教育以及如何带来秩序而没有强迫。哪里有任何形式上的强迫,明显的或隐晦的,哪里就有服从和模仿,而且还将滋生恐惧。在这些学校里,我们的问题是如何去教育而没有任何形式的权威和强迫。了解了权威是如何产生的以及强迫的种种影响,那么一个混乱的心灵如何才能无须努力,自然而然地从它自身混乱里解脱出来呢?学生们来自于混乱的家庭和社会。他们自身是困惑的,不自信的。他们从他们的局限出发来做出反应。他们的反叛,他们叫那自由,其实是他们困惑的回应。这就是学生们的状态。他们想要安全,友爱;而有了强迫这些就不会存在。在他们焦虑的反叛里,他们拒绝的不只是带有权威感的纪律这个词,还有任何形式的强迫。他们越是敏感,他们的反应就越激烈,不幸的是,他们的反叛在以很多肤浅的方式表现。

Education is not the right word, but we have to use it to convey a meaning that implies the real cultivation of the human mind in all its relationships and activities. The cultiva¬tion of the mind and the heart is our responsibility.

教育不是一个恰当的词,但我们不得不去使用它来表达这样一个意思,那就是在所有的关系与行为中对人类心灵的真正培育。这种对于头脑和心灵的培育是我们的责任。

The student comes already conditioned, and from that conditioning his reactions are his temperament, his pecu¬liarity, his desire to fulfil. So the educator, who is also con¬ditioned with his own peculiarities, in his responsibility of relationship to the student must be aware of his own limitations as well as those of the student; so both are educating themselves together. If the educator is disorderly in his private life, and outwardly assumes an orderly life, his word has no significance. When he tells the student to be orderly, he becomes a hypocrite. So the educator needs education as well as the student. This is the principal action—that both are learning—and so the spirit of authority doesn't enter at all into this relationship. When this is clearly and deeply understood, then one has to establish a relationship in which compulsion and conformity cease altogether.

学生来时就是受限的,而基于那个制约他所作出的种种反应就是他的脾性,特点,他要满足的愿望。教育者,同样受到他自身特点的限制,所以在他与学生的关系里,他的责任就是必须意识到自身的局限以及学生的局限;所以他们是一起在接受教育。如果教育者自己的个人生活就是一团糟,而对外作出井井有条的样子,他的话就没有任何意义。当他告诉学生要有秩序时,他就是一个伪君子。所以教育者和学生一样都需要教育。这是最重要的行动——双方都在学习——而在这种关系里权威的精神也便不会进入。当对此有了深刻而又清晰的理解之后,我们一定会建立一种新的关系,在那里强迫和服从都将黯然离去。

How is the student, being confused and disorderly, to learn without compulsion to be orderly? Order is necessary. Order is expressed in behaviour. Order is the very nature of the universe. There is order in nature. Only when man interferes in nature is there disorder, because he himself is disorderly. Order is the action of virtue. Order is love. There is no order when there is effort or contradiction. Order is the highest form of intelligence. Intelligence is not intellectual capacity; it is not the opposing of opinions and conclusions; it is not the mere reasoning capacity, however logical that may be. Intelligence is the highest form of sensitivity outwardly and inwardly toward others as well as toward oneself.

那些本就困惑混乱的学生如何才能在没有强迫的情况下学会有秩序呢?秩序是必要的。秩序表现在行为里。秩序是宇宙的本质。自然中蕴含着秩序。只有当人们干预自然时,才会有混乱,因为人类自己是混乱的。秩序是美德的行动。秩序是爱。当有努力或矛盾时便没有秩序。秩序是最高形式的智慧。智慧不是智力;它不是意见与结论上的反对;它也不仅仅是推理的能力,无论那可能是多么的符合逻辑。智慧是最高形式的敏感,包括内在的,外在的,对人的和对己的。

How is this intelligence to be awakened? Obviously not through any method or system. It is possible only when both the older and the younger are aware of the world about them, of nature and of their own activities, are aware of the events that are going on in the world and their own inward reactions. This awareness is not a thing to be practised and made mechanical. One becomes aware of the total activities of one's mind and body, the way one sits, stands, walks. One listens to one's voice and the significance of words, one's opinions and attitudes, the language of look and gesture, the language of behaviour and its effect on others. All this implies an awareness of one's own self-centred motives and activities.

这样的智慧如何才能觉醒?很明显不是通过任何方法或体系。只有当年长的和年轻的都意识到他们的这个世界,自然和他们自身的活动,都意识到这世界上正在发生的事情以及他们自身内在的反应,它才可能发生。这种觉知不是一种可以练习并进而变得机械的东西。一个人开始注意到他自己心灵和身体的全部活动,他坐,站,走的方式。一个人开始听到他的声音和词语的意义,他的意见和态度,那些眼神和手势的语言,行为的语言,以及它们对别人的影响。所有这些都意味着对于以自我为中心的动机和活动的一种觉知。

We have separated ourselves logically from the world. This separation is linguistic rather than real. The actuality is that we are the world and the world is us. We are not totally aware of this. We may accept this idea intellectually, but it is not an actuality. In the same way, we divide ourselves as the body and the mind, as sentiment or emotion. We never look at ourselves as a whole. This fragmentation is caused by thought, and through thought this awareness is not possible. In this awareness, identification with one's own desires and choice disappear, so both young and old are learning to be. Awareness isn't only in the classroom, but at the table, on the playground. It is to be learnt also when one is walking alone across the fields or sitting quietly in one's room. From this sensitive awareness comes intelligence.

我们已经从逻辑上将自己和世界分开。这种分离只是语言上的而非真实发生的。实际情况是我们就是世界,世界也就是我们。我们尚未完全意识到这一点。我们可能理智上接受这种想法,但实际上没有。同样的,我们将自己分成身体,心灵,情感或情绪。我们从未将自己看作一个整体。这种分裂是由思想所引起的,而通过思想来达到这种觉知是不可能的。在这种觉知中,对于自身欲望的认同和选择消失了,于是年长和年幼的都在学习生活。觉知不只是在教室里,也在餐桌边,操场上。当我们独自穿过田野,或静静地坐在自己的屋子里,都可以对它进行学习。从这种敏感的觉知里便会诞生智慧。

How is this to be conveyed and sustained? Obviously by talking about it, by observing what is happening about one and in one's own reactions. It is this intelligence that will bring order. When this awareness is acting, punctuality, behaviour, politeness, respect, all become a natural thing, not self-imposed or compelled. The teacher and the taught are one. Therefore the observer is the observed. When this relationship is established—and it can only take place when there is the quality of intelligence—there is the possibility of a psychologically different human being.
It is for this that these schools exist, and it is our responsibility to see that this comes into being.

我们如何去传达与保持这些呢?很明显,通过对它的讨论,通过观察发生在身边的事以及自身的反应。这种智慧将带来秩序。当这种觉知在运行时,守时,行为,礼貌,尊敬,所有一切都成为一件很自然的事,既非自我约束亦非外界强迫。教师和学生成为一体。因此观察者就是被观察者。当这种关系被建立起来——只有在有智慧的品质时,这才会发生——才有可能诞生心理上完全不同的人类。
这些学校就是为此而存在,使之成为现实是我们的责任。

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这些学校就是为此而存在,使之成为现实是我们的责任??

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